Regenerative Agriculture for the Layman and Woman
For a long time, the hip word tossed around in the green movement was “sustainability”—sustainable forestry, living sustainably, sustainable goods, sustainable farming practices etc…More and more it has moved beyond just sustaining, into regeneration. And one of the biggest movements in altering our course toward a possible future for life as we know it on this planet is regenerative agriculture.
We have surpassed 400 ppm of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which means that steadily and surely the increasing level of gases in our atmosphere will make it too hot to live on planet earth. This number has almost doubled in just two centuries, mostly due to our burning of fossil fuels. Using cleaner energy is essential but so is sequestering the excess carbon that is already here.
Regenerative agriculture is the practice of providing conditions that enable plants to do their natural wonders, like sequester carbon in the ground. Creating gardens, ranches and farms that mimic nature as much as possible and allow the soil to regenerate its own nutrients has been *scientifically proven to decrease the levels of carbon dioxide in the air at an astoundingly rapid rate. This has many other positive repercussions as plants are multitaskers: the photosynthesis not only whips the atmospheric carbon down to earth, but the ground covers that plants and trees make keep the carbon in the ground and their intricate root system absorbs water so it does not escape as vapors into the atmosphere. Increase in atmospheric water vapors due to poor agriculture and oceanic practices have been a leading cause of amplifying temperatures worldwide.
Some people call this carbon farming, as photosynthesis is the miracle worker that can take the greenhouse gases out of our atmosphere and transform them in the soil, where the lowliest of creatures do the most work.
In regenerative agriculture, Microorganisms cannot be overlooked. Their role in providing a healthy background for life to do its thing is fundamental. For too long, we have treated soil creatures as if they were low-life and not important. Shifting our mentality to the fact that soil is home to microbes that have evolved to not only sequester carbon well and rapidly, but provide food and clean air and water for the rest of creation is a basic starting point. Then we care and understand how important it is to implement practices that regenerate what we have damaged.
What does this mean on a large or small farm, garden or individual level? There are carbon farmers, carbon ranchers and carbon gardeners as the sayings go. We need all of us to turn this ship around. So how do we implement regenerative agricultural practices? Listed below are practices that we have used on this farm successfully. If you could have seen this land fifty years ago- it was red clay, bare ground, garbage all around. Now it teems with life and diversity.
10 Simple Ways to Implement Regenerative Agricultural Practices
1)Honoring all life is an essential first step. Love earthworms if you don’t already!
2)Eliminate use of poisons and synthetic fertilizers.
3)Minimally till. Tilling disturbs the soil and overtime can wear the microbe inhabitants out, making it very difficult for them to do their work.
4)Plant a minimum of two crops, more if you can. Think companion planting. Perennial vegetables. Forest Gardening. Plant trees.
5)Sow cover crops. Encourage ground covers.
6)Use bio-stimulant or biodynamic sprays.
7)Compost. Add compost to the soil regularly. Eventually, the more you implement regenerative agriculture, the less you will need to do this as the soil will have its own checks and balances.
8)Sheet mulch in between plantings. Keep the soil covered at all times.
9)When harvesting annuals, leave the roots in if you can (if it is not a root vegetable) as the roots decomposition continues to build the soil.
10)Observe, and make as minimal disturbances as you can to the land.
Imagine the potential of life on earth if all farmers, ranchers and gardeners implemented these practices. There is hope! Let it begin with you!
*Todd A. Ontl (Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Iowa State University, Ames, IA) & Lisa A. Schulte (Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Iowa State University, Ames, IA)
What exactly is an Appalachian Tea Ceremony and why might you want to come?
Well, tea ceremonies have been around for thousands of years, honoring the plant Camellia sinensis, better known as Tea, but in the Appalachian Tea Ceremony, we take the idea of tea time to another realm. An herbal infusion is the liquid that we imbibe, and each ceremony honors a different plant, depending on the time of year.
This idea of an Appalachian Tea Ceremony came to my friend and mentor Jessie Wilder in 2016, who invited me to co-create one with her at an annual summer gathering we attend. We did so for a few years and in 2019, I got the inspiration to host them every other week, so that we can continue to steep ourselves in plant wisdom year round.
Due to the logistics of making an herbal infusion, I make the brews before the ceremony and have them ready to serve in carafes. There will always be a single plant highlighted that is served first, and then later in the ceremony I will serve a blend which has the highlighted plant in it.
A more adequate name would be an Appalachian Herbal Infusion Ceremony but that doesn’t sound as catchy:-) An infusion is allowing the plant material to be steeped in hot water for half an hour to hours; herbal tea or tisane is when the plant material is steeped only for a few minutes, similar to how Tea is prepared. This is a local, medicinal, caffeine-free, open-hearted herbal opportunity for acknowledging the sacred in everyday. A time for slowing down and giving thanks and being present with whatever is bubbling up inside of you that day.
The Ceremony is as much an infusion of the people who attend as it is of the herbs themselves. Each time it is a different feeling and experience. Depending on the weather, we offer the ceremony in Veritas Lodge or on the grounds/gardens of this beautiful farm. I make a center piece, flowers, a candle- it changes. We sit on pillows on the floor or ground, although there are chairs for anyone who would like them- the most important thing is to feel comfortable. We take a few moments to be still and quiet and feel our breath moving in and out of us. We choose a mug, bow and call in our ancestors. We practice deep listening. We go deeper with the plants. Sometimes I sing a song. We share tea. We share story. We share.
In the end, I offer a salutation, we give back any remaining tea to Earth Mother, and we move into the next layer of the day, hopefully with a more calm, peaceful way of being.
But please do come and find out for yourself! And check out this interview on the ceremony in the EatWeeds Podcast. Or on our local radio station. Or read a wonderful description of it in the second edition of Steve Lorch’s book “How to Make and Grow Tea in the United States.”
“One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds. Much of the damage inflicted on land is quite invisible to laymen. An ecologist must either harden his shell and make believe that the consequences of science are none of his business, or he must be the doctor who sees the marks of death in a community that believes itself well and does not want to be told otherwise.”
When the Titanic sunk, the people on top were the last to admit it was even going down.
Remember when you would drive your car down the road in summer and your windshield would be covered in insects, or if you looked up at an outdoor light there were tons of insects swarming under them? Remember when the woods were full of songbirds? Remember when you were a child playing in your backyard and found all kinds of little critters and plants to explore, or saw thick flocks of birds passing by? Remember when that parking lot was a healthy forested ecosystem? Remember when that creek in your neighborhood teamed with life?
As of 2019, we have lost over 40% of our insects, over 50% of the world’s forests, almost all the coral reefs, most of our topsoil as well as large mammals, plus thousands of other species- too many to name here. Not one day goes by that Hart and I aren’t grieving over the dis-ease of our world. This is Creation, holy, sacred ground, to be honored and stewarded with appreciation and respect for the web of life.
This is a call for taking accountability and creating change. It is an appeal to look into our own daily lives and search for new ways of thinking and being. The planet’s health is shifting rapidly right before our eyes. This decline in health is a result of human endeavors. The sad, terrible news is that our beautiful, giving planet is dying, folks. If for some reason you do not believe this, unfortunately, each day that goes by will make the severity of this situation more and more apparent. “The Lorax” by Dr. Seuss is the most simple but powerful story I can think of to explain the state we are in.
Because we have created the problem, it stands to reason we must also have it within us to create the solution. The bright, hopeful news is that each one of us can take action today to help heal our common home.
The keystone of healing our world and ourselves is a respect for all life. Water is life. Soil is life. Air is life. Insects are life. How generous this world is!! All of these things can live without us, but we cannot survive without them. It is time we treated the non-human world with that respect. Inherent respect for ourselves, each other and the ecosystem means we take care of us and protect us and act in accordance with natural law.
It is possible to live in harmony with life. “In God’s garden, there is a usefulness for everything and everyone.” Clarissa Pinkola Estés. It is possible. But how?
I don’t know all the answers, by any means, but I have some ideas of how we in the first world can shift this downward spiral of environmental disaster. It’s not in the hands of new legislation, political agreements or corporations. We make things so complex. It’s the simple things that make the difference, but however simple and accessible they are, without doing them collectively, it doesn’t work. It is in our hands. Right here and now. We have to unite on this one.
Earth Stewards Unite and;
*Reach out to your Higher Power and ask for guidance each and every day for how to contribute to the health of all beings.
*Do your very best to think beyond yourself into the web that holds you, and let your actions stem from there.
*Be forgiving of yourself and others, trust in the goodwill of one another.
*Spend time outdoors regularly observing nature.
*Eat something wild everyday, even if it is just chewing on a pine needle or popping a violet flower in your mouth.
*Grow a garden, even if it’s a container garden. Or support your local farmers or both. Being personally connect to your food is really one of the biggest ways we can help.
*Think through the need to drive your car here and there at any whim.
*Carpool, walk or take public transit.
*Stop using synthetic detergents and cleaning products. Less harmful alternatives work just as well!
*Convert large mowed areas into wildflower meadows, forests or gardens.
*Have cloth napkins, handkerchiefs and rags. Observe your consumption of paper products.
*Stop using any sort of synthetic pesticide or herbicide. Period.
*Strongly reconsider participating in single use plastic consumption.
*Talk to your local electric company and put up no spray signs on your property. Work together with your neighbors to make no-spray corridors.
*Hang out your laundry on a line or hang it on a rack inside.
*Consider using an alternative to pressure-treated wood.
*Be mindful of how much trash you want to generate. Hang out at your local dump for an afternoon.
*Research what it takes to raise factory cattle, hogs and chickens if you eat meat.
*Give herbal medicine a chance.
*Vote for candidates who do not scowl and belittle others, but rather lift up the people and the planet as a whole.
*Stop shopping at Amazon. If you are curious how this degrades the health of our planet, it starts by destroying the local economy. Visit An Unfair Advantage for more info.
*Thank the rivers and streams near you and notice if they are being cared for well. Be a voice for the voiceless.
*Examine your possessions. How much do you really need? Share. Consume less.
*If you have the means, donate to organizations or support businesses that are making a positive impact for the future of our dear planet.
*Sit still, be with yourself in silence, every day.
*Live simply, so that others may simply live.
*Keep asking for guidance to be a grateful and attentive steward of this magnificent gift of a planet.
*Smile. It makes your eyes sparkle and Divine shine through:-)
As Secretary-General Antonio Guterres of the UN says, “I count on you all.”
Closing the door to one year and stepping over the threshold into a new one is refreshing in a lot of ways- it gives a chance for pause and reflection, a chance to see the highs and lows of the year past and what might be done differently in the upcoming one.
For Herb Mountain Farm, 2018 was a year of manifestation. A vision that Hart and I had been working on since 2013 finally came into being. It was the Chinese Year of the Dog—when stability, loyalty and integrity supposedly hold the prevailing winds.
It started with us trying to secure a loan to finish the project and by February, one was underway with Mountain BizWorks, who graciously walked us through creating a business plan and setting foundations for a successful business. We are ever grateful to Mountain BizWorks for their faith in what we wanted to do and for giving us a large loan to complete the last leg!
In March, we hired Peggy Davis to help get the project off the ground and help run Veritas Lodge once we were open. When Peggy applied for the position of Veritas Lodge Support, I couldn’t believe it. Peggy Davis on our team? How could we be so fortunate? Well, I had visioned and prayed for the best possible person, so why should I be so surprised? Peggy’s help this year has been significant in the actual birthing of the Learning and Lodging center. I do not think we could have done it without her positive energy, creative approaches and hard working ethic. We will forever be indebted to you, Peggy!
In April, the actual loan came through and by May 1, we were hiring more hands to get the building and the grounds ready!! The bulk of the work took place May through October with about as many setbacks as progresses. In June, long term Buchi kombucha tenants moved out of a residential home on the property (where Hart’s mother and father used to live) and so we had that building, plus the big warehouse, plus Veritas Lodge, sitting empty with no income and were trying not to die of stress. We had wanted to turn that house into another venue eventually, a smaller venue, but weren’t prepared to do it so soon!
And of course, the grass and weeds were growing a mile a minute! Not only did we want to keep the grass and weeds under some sort of control, we were starting new gardens and hedgerows, as well as tending dozens of old gardens, and Hart was growing food for an army thinking we would be open by September and he would feed the masses! Thank the heavens for the hard work of Chris Ripley, Lucas Chute, Kaita Collier and Peggy, who stepped in with me and Hart to keep the place cultivated. We got 70 inches of rainfall this year!! Things grew and fell over at an alarming rate while some rotted and some plants thrived.
There were way too many projects flapping around to open in September, so there was a ton of vegetables to eat up ourselves, and share, and we are still harvesting from Hart’s rich garden! Wanna buy any winter squash?;-)
Jessica Falcon moved into the recently vacated studio part of the home mentioned earlier that was once Hart’s parents, and helped get the energy moving along on that building to turn it into a rental. She worked week after week, with a team of us, to help transform that place into a cozy venue, and by December, it was ready! Her vision of seeing the house clean, beautiful, welcoming and ready to go really helped carry the energy forward, as at first, the idea of taking on yet another project just overwhelmed me so, I didn’t want to approach it! It is now named Magnolia, as the building is built with our native Magnolia tree, the Tulip Tree, and also there are Tulip Magnolias (what some folks call Tulip Poplars but it is not a poplar) and other Magnolia trees growing all around. (*editors update- this building is now called the Hearth House and is a residential home).
Then there was the warehouse to give our attention. We can’t just let that 5000 plus square foot building sit there! The rainy year and the medicinal mushroom project had left it in the poorest condition it had ever been. But Hart was determined he could, with the help of Jonathan and Chris, reclaim it and have it ready to rent again. Emerson Naturals, a local herbal ingredient distributor for cosmetics, incense and soaps, signed a lease to begin renting in January 2019, and so we had a fire lit under us. Here it is December 31st and there is still one full long day of work left to get it ready by tomorrow. When will rest ever come?
In the process, we had to let the bathhouse sit, and not finish it yet, as we ran out of money. But everything else is up and ready to go!
Now the energy will be turned toward marketing- how do we get people here to come use this place we have so lovingly created? Marketing is not my cup of tea- gardening, yoga, ceremony, organizing, writing, tea- yes all that is. I am trying to figure out how to use some of those skills to embark on the fine marketing plan Mountain BizWorks helped us create. For the moment, everything is just sitting here, waiting….
I see groups coming here and renting the lodge and the grounds, sort of like a very miniature Eselan Institute, to have their workshops, retreats, gatherings, classes etc…They can settle in for the week and immerse into whatever field of study they have chosen. We will feed them and tend the gardens and trails so that they have a remarkable place to be held and nourished while they are away from their everyday grind.
So that is a brief overview of 2018 from the Farms’s standpoint. What is the year in review like for you? I hope you will take time to reflect on and integrate the ups and downs of 2018 and set intentions for 2019.
In 2019, some of our goals are to finish the bathhouse, continue cultivating these beautiful gardens, make the trail to Onion Rock more accessible, have biweekly Appalachian Tea Ceremonies and Community Acupuncture and of course, fill up our venue and feed and inspire people!
Blessed 2019 to you and yours!
Who among us is not in intimate relationship with the plant kindom? (Yes, that’s kindom, not kingdom, as we are all akin).
Humans could not survive without the plants, and yet, they could survive fine without us. And despite this, they continue to give of themselves century after century, generation after generation, bringing to our lives breathable, clean air, clothing, shelter, beauty, medicine, food, petrol products (ancient, decayed plants) and more.
Whether you acknowledge it or not, everyone of us is having a close relationship with plants. And if this is so, if Plants are our Allies, then why aren’t we as a nation honoring them more?
We have gotten off track of what’s important, and this is a Call to bring us back into seeing plants as allies and treating them as such.
Here are 10 Ideas of how to do that, if you aren’t already.
1)Appreciate the plants and trees around you. Give thanks! Appreciation is fundamental to healthy relationships.
2)Don’t harm them. Namely, don’t kill them with poisons. Yes, weeding out specific plants for desired habitat is an ongoing human thing- but this spraying of poison is new and dangerous and changing life as we know it into a toxic soup.
3)Get to know one or more plants right outside your door or window and observe them throughout the seasons- let them tell you their story. Be still. Observe. Ponder.
4)Grow a plant(s) or tree(s) that you are drawn to, and again, let it teach you who it is and what it needs and has to offer.
5)Tell your neighbors and friends about your plant allies- spread the word!
6)Create art in response to your relationship with certain plants. You don’t have to be an “artist”- you can make a mandala with leaves, a flower arrangement, a garden, photographs, pressed plants, drawings etc…There are endless ways of how to be creative with nature.
7)Find a plant(s) you are excited about thats wild, and edible, and start eating it regularly! Bring it to your table!
8)Make medicine from a plant near you. You can make a tea (infusion), tincture, salve, oil, poultice, or any number of things, to help heal an ill or prevent a sickness.
9)Smell them. Walk around and smell the plants. Your olfactory nerves will trigger ancient information in your DNA that helps you recall how connected you are to plants.
10)Give them Offerings. With an ally, giving gifts is common. Use your voice with song or praise, blow your finest kiss to them, bring corn or tobacco or another gift to their base, say a prayer, bring them fertilizer- offer them your love and care!
We chose to call our farm a Learning and Lodging Center, an alternative way of saying Retreat Center, in the hopes it would draw folks here looking for not only a place to rest and renew, but to also learn about and find something of meaning to take back out into the world and share with others. As we try to get the word out that we are here as a venue, Google and Instagram and everything of that nature has specific categories you can choose from to describe your business— it wont let you write in your own. So Learning and Lodging Center and Botanical Sanctuary is not on their list, surprise! So we chose Retreat Center, and we interchange this description where we can, with what feels more descriptive to us- a Learning and Lodging Center as well as a Plants and Healing Sanctuary.
Retreat Centers were originally established by religious practitioners, to have a place to retreat to, away from their everyday lives, to pray and to renew their connection to God. In the past several decades, Retreats have sprung up in all manner of styles. The intention remains the same, however, to step away from our day to day and be immersed in a connection to something dear to one’s heart, whether it be writing, painting, meditation, yoga, cooking and so on.
This act of making time away from the daily grind, to explore something you are passionate about and dedicate your day or days to that subject, is an investment in your well being and the well being of those around you. Its a gift that we can surely use in this day and age when things are moving so rapidly and self-care and focused study are not woven into our culture’s daily norm.
We have laid a strong foundation here at Herb Mountain Farm, for you to come and lead and/or partake of a learning and lodging experience, a retreat, a time away from the usual, a dedication to feeding your soul.
We are keeping it intimate though, as parking and lodging are limiting factors here. Not only that, our greatest passion is the Botanical Sanctuary side of our Farm, and when large numbers of people gather, plants often get trampled, it’s harder to stay on the trails, and we end up losing some of the diversity we’ve worked so hard on cultivating. We had someone call yesterday and ask if they could hold their retreat here of 70 people and I shared that there are other great venues nearby that could accommodate that much, but not here. We can sleep up to 17 and the teaching studio and dining room can hold up to 25. Our grounds can accommodate more, but still, we are a small, intimate venue.
We are so excited to see what groups or organizations choose Herb Mountain Farm as their Learning and Lodging Center for their workshop, event, gathering, conference etc…Everything is new and fresh here and awaiting the arrival of nature-loving people!
Hello everyone! Thank you so so much for visiting our website and checking out what we are up to here at Herb Mountain Farm!
In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Leaning Deer, helped us compile a species list of the flora we have met on the property. Over the past few years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing plants to help broaden it! (And helping plant and tend them, too!)
It begins with a description of our farm, and then a list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all perennials here, as well as some animal life! Enjoy! This list is continually being updated, a true living document!
Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm
Weaverville, North Carolina
begun 2014, last updated Oct 2020
Compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Plantwalker
This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, primarily consists of West facing slopes but also includes some South, Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East.
The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens and residential, retreat and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species. There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch. The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.
With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.
Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of non-native or cultivated status will have an * following their names and “Invasive” if they are particularly so. Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with “sp.” following the generic name. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage. Only perennial or self-seeding annuals are listed. Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added in time.
TREES AND SHRUBS:
Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry
Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum
Viburnum dentata, Arrowwood
Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw
Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum
Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry or Crampbark
Viburnum X pragense, Prague Viburnum
Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac
Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac
Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw
Ilex crenata, Japanese Holly*
Ilex decidua, Winter Holly
Ilex meservaea, Blue Maid Hollies*
Ilex opaca, American Holly
Berberis thunbergii, Barberry Bagatelle*
Mahonia aquifolium, Oregon Grape Bush*
Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo*
Alnus sp., Alder
Betula lenta, Sweet Birch
Betula nigra, River Birch
Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood
Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut
Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam
Buxus semervirens, Boxwood*
Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox*
Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweetbubbas or Carolina Allspice
Celtis sp. Hackberry
Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or American Wahoo
Clethra alniflora, Pepperbush
Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood
Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood
Cornus canadensis, BunchBerry
Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)
Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry
Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood, Red Gnome variety
Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress*
Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper*
Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast*
Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike*
Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Red Cedar
Thuja spp., ArborVitae*
Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon
Diospyros kaki., Asian Persimmon*
Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel
Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood
Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela
Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea
Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel
Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela
Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela
Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron
Vaccinium altomontanum, Blue Ridge Blueberry
Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry
Vaccinium pallidum or stamineum Blueberries*
Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa*
Caragana arborescens, Siberian Pea Shrub*
Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud
Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffee Tree
Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)
Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut*
Fagus grandifolia, American Beech
Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)
Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak
Quercus illicifolia, Bear/Scrub Oak
Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak
Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak
Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak
Quercus stellata, Post Oak
Quercus velutina, Black Oak
Ginko biloba, Gingko*
Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry
Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder
Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel
Deutzia sp. “Dwarf”
Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea
Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea
Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties
Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange
Illicium floridanum, Star Anise Tree*
Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire
Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory
Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory
Carya ovalis, Red Hickory
Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory
Carya illinoinensis, Pecan
Juglans nigra, Black Walnut
Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower*
Lindera benzoin, Spicebush
Sassafras albidum, Sassafras
Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII*
Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree
Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia
Magnolia fraseri, Fraser or Mountain Magnolia or Wahoo
Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia*
Magnolia macrophylla, Big Leaf Magnolia
Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia*
Magnolia stellata, Star Magnolia*
Magnolia virginiana, Sweet Bay
Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon*
Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange
Tilia heterophylla, Appalachian Basswood or Linden
Tilia sp., European cultivar*
Ficus carna, Dessert King*
Morus alba, White Mulberry* (species of concern)
Morus rubra, Red Mulberry
Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo
Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia*
Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard
Forsythia sp., Forsythia*
Fraxinus americana, White Ash
Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)
Ligustrum sinense, Privet* Invasive
Syringa sp., Lilac*
Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce*
Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine
Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine
Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine
Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)
Tsuga canadensis, Weeping Hemlock ‘Pendulum”
Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)
Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore
Frangula alnus, “Asplenifolia”*
Ziziphus mauritiana, Jujube Date*
Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry
Aronia sp., Chokeberry
Chamaenomeles sp. Flowering Quince*
Crataegus spp., Hawthorn
Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas*
Malus sp., Apple*
Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark
Prunus armeniaca, Apricot*
Prunus avium, Bird Cherry*
Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry
Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)
Prunus sp., Cherry*
Prunus sp., Native Plum
Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry*
Pyrus communis, Pear*
Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose* Invasive
Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*
Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose
Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals*
Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry
Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry*
Rubus sp., Blackberry*
Rubus sp., Raspberry*
Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash
Spirea japonica* Very Invasive
Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea*
Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush
Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia*
Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree
Poncirus trifoliata, Trifoliate Orange* “Flying Dragon”
Salix babylonica, Weeping Willow
Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow*
Salix discolor, Pussy Willow
Salix sp., Willow
Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium
Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder
Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple
Acer rubrum, Red Maple
Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple
Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple
Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye
Koelreuteria paniculata, Goldenrain Tree*
Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven* Invasive
Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell
Styrax americanus, American Snowbell
Taxus sp., Yew*
Cammelia sinensis, Tea*
Stewartia sp., Stewartia (species of concern)DIED?
Daphne odora, Daphne*
Dirca palustris, Leatherwood
Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm
HERBACEOUS PLANTS (MONOCOTS)
Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus
Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily
Hosta spp., Hosta*
Yucca filamentosa, Yucca*
Allium spp., Ornamentals*
Allium cernuum, Nodding Onion
Allium tricoccum, Ramps
Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion*
Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil
Amorphophallus konjac, Voodoo Lily*
Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon DIED?
Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip
Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca
Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume
Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon’s Seal
Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing*
Asphodelus albus, Asphodel*
Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily*
Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort
Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort
Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower*
Tradescantia ohiensis, Spiderwort
Carex flaca, Blue Zinger Sedge
Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge
Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge
Carex spp., Sedges
Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamonvine, Air Potato* Invas
Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam
Crocosmia sp., Lucifer’s Tongue*
Iris cristata, Dwarf Crested Iris
Iris fulva, Copper Iris
Iris pallida, Orris Root
Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag*
Iris spp., multiple varieties all over property*
Juncus effusus, Soft Rush (by lower pond)
Juncus tenuis, Path Rush
Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth*
Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem*
Erythronium sp., Trout Lily
Lilium michauxii, Carolina Lily
Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily
Liriope muscari, Liriope*
Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber
Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells
Scilla siberica, Siberian Squill*
Chamelirium luteum, False Unicorn Root
Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade
Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium
Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie
Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium
Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium
Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily
Aletris farinosa, Unicorn Root
Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot
Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers
Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid
Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid
Spiranthes cernua, Nodding Ladies’ Tresses
Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid
Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass
Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane
Arundo donax, Peppermint Stick or Striped Giant Reed*
Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass
Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass
Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass*
Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass*
Microstegium vimineum, Japanese Stilt Grass*
Miscanthus sinensis, Chinese Silver Grass* Invasive
Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass
Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*
Poa annua, Bluegrass
Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem
Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass* Invasive
Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla
Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower
Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar
Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail* (Invasive)
HERBACEOUS PLANTS (DICOTS)
Acanthus mollis Bear’s Breeches*
Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia
Amaranthus spinosa, Spiny Amaranth*
Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot*
Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy
Angelica archangelica, Angelica*
Angelica gigas, Angelica*
Angelica triquinata, Filmy Angelica
Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort
Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace*
Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master
Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico
Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely*
Osmorhiza claytonii, Sweet Cicely
Osmorhiza longistylis, Long Style Sweet Cicely
Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip*
Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot
Sanicula gregaria, Clustered Snakeroot
Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander
Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star
Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane
Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed*
Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed
Asclepias quadrifolia, Four-Leaved Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed
Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed
Ascelpias viridiflora, Green Milkweed DIED?
Asclepias verticillata, Whorled Milkweed DIED?
Gomphocarpus physocarpus, Balloon Milkweed*
Matelea carolinensis, Carolina Spinypod
Vinca minor, Vinca or Periwinkle
Aralia racemosa, Spikenard
Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick
Hedera helix, English Ivy*
Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng*
Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng
Tetrapanax papyrifer, Rice Paper Plant*
Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine
Asarum canadense, Wild Ginger
Asarum splendens. Asian Wild Ginger*
Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow
Achillea millifolium, Yarrow
Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *(Invasive)
Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed
Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory*
Antennaria spp., Rosy Pussy-Toes
Arctium minus, Common Burdock*
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain
Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood*
Artemisia annua, Sweet Annie*
Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*
Bidens frondosa, Beggar’s Ticks
Bigelowia nuttallii, Nutalls Rayless Goldenrod
Boltonia asteroides, Wavy Aster
Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button*
Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua*
Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold
Chrysopsis mariana, Golden Aster
Cichorium intybus, Chicory
Cirsium discolor, Field thistle*
Cirsium sp., Thistle
Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist or Hardy Ageratum
Coreopsis major, Whorled Coreopsis
Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals*
Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia*
Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower
Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea
Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower
Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower
Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower
Elephantopus tomentosa/carolinianus, Elephant’s Foot
Erechtites heiraciifolius, Pilewort
Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane
Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane
Erigeron pulchellus, Robin’s Plantain
Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset
Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset
Eurybia divaricata, White Heart-leaved or Wood Aster
Eurybia macrophyllum, Big Leaf Aster
Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed
Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed
Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga or Quickweed
Grindelia robusta, Gumweed*
Helianthus angustifolius, Swamp Sunflower
Helianthus maximilianii, Maximillian Sunflower
Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke
Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower
Hieracium venosum, Rattlesnake weed
Inula helenium, Elecampane*
Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster
Krigia montana, Mountain Dwarf Dandelion
Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce
Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eyed Daisy*
Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star
Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star
Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather
Nablus latissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth
Packera anonyma, Small’s Ragwort
Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort
Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine
Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass
Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting
Ratibida pinnata, Prairie or Gray-headed Coneflower
Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan
Rudbeckia laciniata, Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower
Rudbeckia fulgide, Orange Coneflower
Rudbeckia maxima, Giant/Great/Large Coneflower
Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton*
Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel
Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant
Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant
Silphium trifoliatum, Whorled Rosinweed
Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot
Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle
Solidago arguta, Atlantic Goldenrod
Solidago bicolor, Silverrod
Solidago curtisii Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod
Solidago canadensis, Canada Goldenrod
Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod
Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod
Solidago sphacelata, Autumn Goldenrod
Sonchus oleraceus, Common Sow Thistle*
Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster*
Symphyotrichum cordifolium, Common Blue Wood Aster
Symphyotrichum dumosum, Rice Button Aster
Symhpyotrichum ericoides, Heath Aster
Symhpyotrichum laeve, Smooth Aster
Symphyotrichum patens, Late Purple Aster
Symphyotrichum pilosum, White Heath Aster
Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster
Symphyotrichum undulatum, Wavyleaf Aster
Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew*
Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy*
Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion*
Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem
Verbesina virginica, White Crownbeard
Vernonia altissima, Ironweed
Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr
Youngia japonica, Asian Hawksbeard*
Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed
Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed
Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh
Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed*
Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf
Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple
Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine
Anchusa ochroleuca, Yellow Alkanet*
Anchusa officinalis, Anchusa Azure*
Borago officinalis, Borage*
Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge
Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf
Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells
Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not*
Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia
Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort*
Symphytum officinale, Comfrey*
Armoracia rusticana, Horseradish*
Barbarea verna, Cress*
Brassica rapa, Field Mustard*
Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse*
Cardamine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort
Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress
Erysimum sp. Wallflower
Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft*
Lepidium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper
Lunaria annua, Money Plant*
Nasturtium officinale, Watercress*
Orychophragmus violaceus, Chinese Violet Cress*
Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge
Cylindropuntia imbricata, Tree Cholla*
Cylindropuntia x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla*
Echinocereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus*
Opuntia humifusa, Eastern Prickly Pear
Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear
Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower
Campanula divaricata, Southern Harebell
Laurentia (or Isotoma) fluviatilis, Blue Star Creeper*
Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower
Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco
Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia
Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia
Lobelia spp., Lobelia
Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass
Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle* Invasive
Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle
Diervilla sessifolia, Bush Honeysuckle
Dipsacus fullonum, Teasle*
Patrinia scabiosifolia, Golden Valerian*
Valeriana jamansii, Indian Valerian*
Valeriana officinalis, Valerian*
Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed
Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink*
Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink*
Dianthus spp., Sweet William and Super Trouper etc…*
Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort
Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly
Silene ovata, Blue Ridge Catchfly
Silene stellata, Starry Campion, Widowsfrill
Silene virginica, Fire Pink
Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears*
Stellaria media, Common Chickweed
Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed
Valerianella locusta, Corn Salad or Mache
Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet* Invasive
Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper* Invasive
Lechea minor, Thymeleaf Pinweed
Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower or Pink Queen*
Calystegia spp., Bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory*
Cuscuta sp., Dodder
Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory*
Ipomoea hederacea Ivy Leaf Morning Glory*
Ipomoea purpurea, Common Morning Glory*
Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare
Sedum telephioides, Live Forever
Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop
Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)
Galax urceolata, Galax
Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells
Ephedra sp., Mahuang or Mormon Tea*
Equisetum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush
Calluna vulgaris, Heather*
Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa
Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen
Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble
Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap
Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe
Pieris japonica, Japanese Andromeda*
Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury
Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge
Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge
Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge
Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge
Euphorbia maculata, Prostrate Spurge
Ricinus communis, Castor Bean*
Amorpha fruitcosa, Desert False Indigo
Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut
Apios americana, Groundnut
Astragalus canadensis, Canadian Milkvetch
Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus*
Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo
Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo
Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca*
Desmodium glutinosum, Pointed Leaf Tick Treefoil
Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil
Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom*
Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea*
Lupinus spp., Lupines*
Securigera varia, Crown Vetch*
Senna hebecarpa, Northern Wild Senna
Tephrosia virginiana, Devil’s Shoestrings
Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner
Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover*
Trifolium pratense, Red Clover*
Trifolium repens, White Clover*
Vicia sp., Vetch
Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria
Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian
Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s or Bottle Gentian
Gentiana lutea, Yellow Gentian*
Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian*
Obolaria virginica, Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian
Sabatia angularis, Rose Gentian or Rose Pink
Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium
Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium
Hypericum gentianoides, Orangegrass
Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort*
Hypericum prolificum, Shrubby St. John’s Wort
Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort
Hypercium sp. St. Andrew’s Cross
Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop*
Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint
Collinsonia canadensis, Richweed,Horsebalm or Stoneroot
Glechoma hederacea, Ground Ivy, Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground*
Lamiastrum galeobdoblon, Herman’s Pride Archangel*
Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit*
Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle*
Lavandula spp., Lavender* (Munstead, Elegance Purple, Czech
Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort*
Leonurus japonicus, Chinese Motherwort*
Leonurua sibiricus, Siberian Motherwort* Invasive
Lycopus europaeus, Europe Bugleweed or Gypsywort*
Lycopus virginicus, Bugleweed
Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm
Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint*
Mentha piperita, Peppermint
Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive
Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea*
Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot
Monarda punctatum, Spotted Bee Balm
Nepeta cataria, Catnip*
Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil*
Origanum vulgare, Oregano*
Perilla frutescens, Shiso*
Perovskia atriplicifolia, Russian Sage*
Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant
Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal*
Pycnanthemum montanum, Thinleaf Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint
Rosmarinus spp., Rosemary*
Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage
Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage*
Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red Sage/Denshen*
Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage*
Salvia spp., Ornamental Sages*
Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap*
Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap
Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet or Rough Skullcap
Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap
Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii, Shale Barren Skullcap
Thymus spp., Thyme varieties*
Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink DIED
Althea officinalis, Marshmallow
Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus moscheutos, Rose Mallow
Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle*
Hibiscus spp., Ornamental and Native varieties
Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour*
Malva neglecta, Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow*
Sida sp., Sida
Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty
Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius). Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower. This sp. though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops here. One at Onion Rock.
Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern
Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade
Epilobium sp. Willow Herb
Gaura biennis, Beeblossom
Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox
Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose
Onethera fremontii, Shimmer*
Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops
Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies
Agalinus tenuifolia, Common Gerardia
Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech
Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove
Conopholis americana, Bear Corn
Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops
Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape
Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort
Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Wood Sorrel
Oxalis montana, Mountain Wood Sorrel
Oxalis stricta, Common Yellow wood Sorrel
Paeonia sp., Peony*
Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn
Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Breeches
Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts
Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy*
Glaucium flavum, Yellow Horned Poppy
Macleaya cordata, Plume Poppy*
Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy*
Papaver somniferum, Opium Poppy*
Papaver orientale, Oriental Poppy*
Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot
Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine
Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower
Passiflora lutea, Yellow Passionflower
Mimulus ringens, Monkey Flower
Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed
Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed
Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead
Chelone spp., Turtlehead
Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove*
Penstemon spp., Beardtongue
Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue
Penstemon digitalis, Foxglove Penstemon
Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue
Penstemon smallii, Small’s Penstemon
Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain
Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain
Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain
Veronica americana, American Brookline
Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not*
Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue*
Veronica persica, Birds Eye Speedwell*
Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica*
Veronicatrum virginicum, Culver’s Root
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago*
Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox
Phlox spp., Phlox
Phlox stolonifera, Creeping Phlox
Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox*
Polemonium reptans, Jacob’s Ladder
Eriogonum allenii, Yellow Buckwheat
Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu*
Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat
Polygonum or Persicaria spp., Knotweed, Smartweed, Polygonum tenue, Pleatleaf Knotweed
Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel*
Rumex crispus, Curly Dock*
Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock*
Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock*
Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed
Portulaca oleracea, Purslane*
Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel*
Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife*
Lysimachia japonica, Dwf Creeping Jenny “minutissima”*
Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip*
Primula meadia, Shooting Star
Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes
Actaea podocarpa, Mountain Bugbane
Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh
Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower*
Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone
Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed
Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine
Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower
Clematis spp., Ornamental
Delphinium exaltum, Tall Larkspur
Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur
Helleborus orientalis, Lenten Rose*
Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf
Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal
Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot
Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup*
Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue
Trautvetterria carolinensis, Carolina Tassel Rue
Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot
Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony
Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony
Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle*
Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard
Duchesnea indica, Indian Strawberry*
Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie
Fragaria sp., Strawberry*
Geum sp., Avens
Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil
Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil
Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet*
Spiraea alba, White Spirea
Spiraea japonica, Japanese Spirea* Invasive
Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed
Galium aparine, Cleavers*
Galium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice/Lance-leaved Galium
Galium latifolium, Wideleaf Bedstraw
Galium odorata, Sweet Woodruff*
Galium rubrum, Madder*
Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia
Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Squaw Vine (name is of Algonquian origin) Species of concern
Rubia tinctoria, Madder*
Sherardia arvensis, Blue Field Madder*
Ruta graveolens, Rue*
Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa*
Houttuynia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*
Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail
Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard
Astilbe sp., Ornamental*
Heuchera americana, American Alumroot
Heuchera spp., Coral Bells
Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce
Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap
Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower
Schisandra glabra, Magnolia Vine
Scrophularia ningpoensis, Xuan Shen*
Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort*
Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein
Verbascum phoeniceum, Bouquet Mullein
Verbascum thapsus, Mullein
Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet*
Datura metel?, Indian Thornapple*
Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed
Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru*
Nicotiana sp., Tobacco*
Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade
Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle
Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle
Pilea pumila, Clearweed
Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*
Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain
Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain*
Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain
Hybanthus concolor, Eastern Green Violet
Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet
Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet
Viola pedata, Birdfoot Violet
Viola pallens, Northern White Violet
Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet
Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia, Blue or Confederate Violet
Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper
Vitis sp., Fox Grape
Vitis sp., Scuppernong
Vitis sp., Grape*
Suspected: Bladder Campion, Coral-root Orchid, Mtn Pepper Bush, Vermilion Pimpernel & Whorled Loosestrife
Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort
Asplenium montanum, Mountain Spleenwort
Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern*
Pteridium aquilinum, Bracken Fern
Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern
Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)
Huperzia lucidula, Shining Clubmoss
Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern
Botrypus virginianus, Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer
Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern
Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern
Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern
Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern
Woodsia obtusa, Bluntlobe Cliff Fern
Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection fern
Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypody
Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern
Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern
Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)
Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss
Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar
Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!
Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders. Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs. Found on boulder near waterfall.
Mantis religiosa, European mantis
Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle
Danaus plexippus, Monarch
Polygonia comma, Comma
Battus philenor, Pipevine Swallowtail
Papilio troilus, Spicebush Swallowtail
Phoebis sennae Suplhur
Pieris rapae, Cabbage White
BIRDS: (Seen or heard on the Property) Dove?
Accipiter cooperi, Cooper’s Hawk
Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier
Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing
Cardinalis cardinalis, Cardinal
Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting
Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting
Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager
Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture
Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove
Corvus sp., Crow
Cyanocitta cristata Bluejay
Coccyzus erythrothalmus, Black-Billed Cuckoo
Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak
Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch
Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow
Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird
Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird
Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee
Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse
Mniotilta varia, Black and White Warbler
Seiurus aurocapilla, Oven Bird
Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler
Junco hyemalis, Dark-Eyed Junco
Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow
Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee
Meleagris gallopavo, Wild Turkey
Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker
Dryobates pubescens , Downy Woodpecker
Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker
Leuconotopicus villosus, Hairy Woodpecker
Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker
Regulus satrapa, Goldencrowned Kinglet
Megascops asio, Eastern Screech Owl
Strix varia, Barred Owl
Archilochus colubris, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird
Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren
Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren
Sialia sp., Blue Bird
Turdus migratorius, American Robin
Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe
Tyto alba, Barn Owl
Vireo olivaceus, Red-Eyed Vireo
Strobilomyces, Old Man of the Woods
Cantharellus sp., Chanterelle
Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus
Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap
Hypomyces, Lobster Mushroom
Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom
Morchella esculenta, Morel
Bird’s Nest Fungus
Lentinula edodes, Shiitake
Omphalotus illudens, Jack O’ Lantern
Armillaria sp. Honey Mushrooms
Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom
Fistulina hepatica, Beefsteak Fungus
Laetiporus sp. Chicken of the Woods
Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore
Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail
Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore
Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus
Russula sp., Russula
Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral
Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum
Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers
Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype
Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold
Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime
Mary Morgaine’s first introduction to Herb Mountain Farm and the Cosmincident that followed.
“Be very careful what you set your heart upon, for you will surely have it.”
-Ralph Waldo Emerson
In 2005, A friend called and asked me if I wanted to help her mulch a big field before planting it in garlic, so I took up the opportunity for some extra work. I wanted to wean from my many hours of one-on-one work with special needs children and adults and bring in more physical labor and outdoor work into my life. When I arrived at Herb Mountain Farm, where the field work was happening, I knew I had landed in a place that would play a significant role along my life path. I had no idea how significant that would be, though!
Hart, the owner of the farm, came out and gave us explicit instructions for mulching- exactly how we were to lay the hay so that the least amount of weeds could get through. Some of the hay bales were old and packed so tightly it was like wrestling a beast to pull away tufts of hay. Pitchfork by pitchfork, we spread the hay all over the half-acre field. It took days. I loved every minute of it though, as we sang while spreading the hay and periodically I would stop to do cartwheels or handstands along the edge of the plot. I was outside and using my body and I felt free in a way that had been lost for years! I loved this work.
I stayed on for the garlic planting, and Hart and I hit it off quite well. He was full of experiential knowledge of organic farming, having done it for longer than I had been alive, and very generous. He saw that I was eager to work and asked if I wanted to give working there three days a week a try for a month, being a farm hand and groundskeeper- a general helper with whatever needed to be done around the property that I could manage. I said I would be honored, and thus my job at Herb Mountain Farm begun.
This work was more than I could have known to ask for, as far as honing my strengths and transforming my weaknesses. I became physically stronger than I had been at any time in my life and most of the time I worked alone (with Savannah my dog, always by my side) so I had the chance to observe nature, sing and imagine, to my heart’s content.
Several months of the year were dedicated to garlic, Allium sativum. Mulching, planting, weeding and watering the beds, harvesting, curing and storing, cleaning and then selling it. For the several years that I worked so intimately with the garlic, I had quite a purification happen. I understood why garlic was the herb used to scare off demons and vampires, for being in its presence so often brought to the surface old “demons” in me and helped send them on their way. Every one of us has shadow sides and most of us spend our life trying to avoid seeing them. I felt that working with the garlic left the uglies in me with nowhere to hide. It was some powerful medicine.
When I was not dealing with garlic, Hart taught me how to correctly prune fruit trees, build rock paths, prep and clean beehives, maintain the goose pen and chicken house, build and enrich the soil, grow an array of vegetables, transplant anything big or small, save seeds, clean out well cisterns, dig ditches, build swales, cultivate berry hedges, manage large tracts of land from bramble and bittersweet vines taking over, and more! In short, the years working for Hart taught me how to love and steward a piece of land with consciousness.
Hart was patient with me when I made mistakes and freely shared his knowledge with me on any topic. Not only was he an incredible employer, he was a friend. I had been learning organic gardening and sustainable living practices since 1993 and implementing them here and there, but working at Herb Mountain Farm allowed me to take this passion to another level and get genuine hands on experience in basic homesteading.
In 2007, during the planting of the garlic, I, unawares, lost my special turquoise ring. When I was 19 years old, in the early 90’s, and living in Bellingham, Washington attending Fairhaven College at Western Washington University, I met a street vender who had a turquoise ring for sale—the thought of this ring kept drawing me back to his cart day after day. I finally came up with the $20 to buy it and felt so thrilled to have it on my finger.
It did not remain there well, however, as over the years I would lose it periodically only to find it again in the strangest of places. Usually I could not remember where or when I lost it, as though it had just vanished. When I would notice that it was no longer on my finger, I would wonder, “When did this happen?”
The stone itself had started to fall out of its silver setting and would disappear for weeks at a time. Once, I found it lying in the yard, a turquoise glow catching my eye. Another time someone found it in an auditorium after it had been missing for months. When I met a jewelry maker at a Nanci Griffith concert and asked if she could fix the ring, she agreed to put the stone into a new setting that would embrace it better, as well as fit my finger more securely.
So I left the ring, my address, and $50 with her, along with complete faith in its return. Three months later I received it in the mail, looking beautiful in its new band.
I wore it for a couple months, and then it disappeared again. This time it took missing for one and a half years. I knew it would turn up again at some point. On the spring equinox of 2006, I completed my seasonal ritual of harvesting ‘black gold’–my worm castings compost pile. The months of kitchen waste had been transformed into three 5-gallon bucket-fulls of beautiful soil. As I stored the buckets away for later use, I scooped out a quart of it to dress my houseplants.
As I spread the finished compost on my beloved ficus tree, the ring peaked out of the ‘black gold’. I stared in awe, then grabbed the ring and went to lie down in my yard under the silver maple tree and just cried with the magnificence of the moment. The ring had spent a year and a half in the transformation process of turning plant matter back into rich earth, which is some of the most basic, important work there is to a healthy planet, and so I felt like I had been crowned a queen to wear this ring again after what it had been through.
It stayed on for six months until that autumn when it disappeared again. It was during the garlic-planting season at Herb Mountain Farm that it went missing. But again, it could have fallen off anywhere, for when I realized it was not on my finger, I was in that spellbound place of wondering how long it had been gone.
About nine months later, I started thinking about my lovely turquoise ring strongly. I said a prayer to the Almighty, “If this ring shows up again, I will never doubt your hand of Grace that rules my life. There will be no more room for worries or fears if this comes back to me yet another time.” Big statement, I know.
I had a gold journal that I called Ceridwyn’s Cauldron in which I wrote down things that I wish to do or have; things that I do not have time to do currently in my life but hope to some day, or things I cannot yet afford, and other things that are beyond my control. I delegate these matters to the Great Mystery, where magic and miracles are always unfolding. I wrote down ‘The Ring’.
A couple days later, in June, I was harvesting the quarter acre or more of the fall-planted garlic at the farm with a group of women. One of the women on the other side of the field from me pulled up a garlic plant and gasped, for there was a ring at its base. I walked over and saw that it was the ring, my turquoise ring, attached at the base of the leaves and the head of the bulb!!! I asked to hold the stalk and immediately began trembling with such a powerful knowing of Divine love and the respect of being heard, that all I could do was cry with joy and in humbleness and lift up my arms to the heavens in praises. We were all in amazement!
The ring had fallen off while I was planting the garlic cloves in the field, 9 months before! Apparently a clove sprouted in the center of the ring and kept it held close, underground until the garlic fully developed into its potential, bringing back the ring to light with the harvest.
I think of this as a cosmincident– a lining up with the cosmos- a celebratory event.
11 years later, Hart and I are almost at our journey’s goal of opening up a Learning and Lodging Center, the transformation and transition of Herb Mountain Farm. I see this being a place of healing, learning, growing and cosmincidences. I still think that ring, that piece of gemstone that grew in the deep veins of Mother Earth, returning back to earth an then light, again and again, is in part responsible for this .🌞
In the late 90’s, Hart and his then wife, Monika, built a home to raise three special needs children they adopted. As it was being built, Hart had a dream of one day using the building as a bed and breakfast-type lodge, for people to come and stay, learn and relax on the farm, and he would serve them farm to table meals. Being a chef and gardener, these two things bring Hart his greatest joy– growing food and cooking it for people!
It was in 2015 that we actually began the remodel of Hart’s former home to become Veritas Lodge, and even though Hart had made several things from the get go that helped it be more adaptable for a lodge, it has still been a lot of work, with many unexpected twists and turns. I bet anyone starting a new venture would say that! The open space studio and dining room are still not complete for photographing, but here are photos of some of our transformations:
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We offer both ongoing and one-time events and learning opportunities and would also like to host those events you’d like to offer, that are closely linked with the natural world! See our line-up of workshops, personalized tours, bodywork and more!