Herb Mountain Farm | Weaverville, NC

Hello everyone! Thank you so so much for visiting our website and checking out what we are up to here at Herb Mountain Farm!

In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Leaning Deer, helped us compile a species list of who we have met on the property, excluding the obvious – humans – :). Over the past four years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing plants to help broaden it! (And at times planting them, too!)

It begins with a description of our farm, and then a list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all perennials here, as well as some animal life! Enjoy! This list is continually being updated, a true living document!


Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm in Weaverville, North Carolina, 2019

(Begun in 2014)

Compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Morgaine Squire

This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, is primarily of West facing slopes but also includes some South,  Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East. 

The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens and residential, retreat and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species.  There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch.  The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.

With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.

Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of non-native or cultivated status will have an * following their names and “Invasive” if they are particularly so.  Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with “sp.” following the generic name. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage. Only perennial or self-seeding annuals are listed. Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added in time. 

Trees and Shrubs: 

Adoxaceae 

Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry

Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum

Viburnum dentata, Arrowwood

Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw

Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry or Crampbark

Viburnum X pragense, Prague Vibernum

Anacardiaceae

Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac 

Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac

Annonaceae

Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw

Aquifoliaceae

Illex crenata, Japanese Holly*

Illex decidua, Winter Holly

Illex meservaea, Blue Maid HolliesIllex opaca, American Holly

Berberidaceae

Berberis thunbergia, Barberry Bagatelle*

Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo*

Betulaceae

Alnus sp., Alder

Betula lenta, Sweet Birch

Betula nigra, River Birch

Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood

Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut

Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam

Buxaceae

Buxus semoervirens, Boxwood*

Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox*

Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweetbubbas or Carolina Allspice

Cannabaceae

Celtis sp. Hackberry

Celastraceae

Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or Wahoo

Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood

Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood

Cornus florida,  Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)

Cornus Kousa*

Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry

Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood, Red Gnome variety 

Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress*

Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper*

Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast*

Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike*

Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Red Cedar

Thuja spp., ArborVitae*

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon

Diospyros spp., Oriental Persimmons* 

Ericaceae

Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel

Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea

Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood

Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela 

Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel

Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela

Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela

Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron 

Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium spp., Blueberries*

Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa

Caragana arborescens, Siberian Pea Shrub*

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud

Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)

Fagaceae

Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut*

Fagus grandifolia, American Beech

Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)

Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak

Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak

Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak

Quercus velutina, Black Oak

Gingkoaceae

Ginko biloba, Gingko*

Grossulariaceae 

Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry

Hamamelidaceae

Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder

Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel

Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea

Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea

Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties

Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange

Illiaceae

Illicium floridium, Star Anise Tree*

Iteaceae

Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire 

Juglandaceae

Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory

Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory

Carya illinoinensis, Pecan

Juglans nigra, Black Walnut

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower*

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin, Spicebush

Sassafras albidum, Sassafras

Lythraceae

Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII*

Magnoliaceae 

Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree

Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia

Magnolia fraseri, Fraser Magnolia, Mountain Magnolia or Wahoo

Magnolia grandifolia, Southern Magnolia*

Magnolia macrophylla, Umbrella Magnolia

Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia*

Magnolia stellata, Star Magnolia*

Malvaceae

Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon*

Tilia heterophyllia, Appalachian Basswood or Linden

Tilia sp., European cultivar*

Moraceae

Ficus carina, Dessert King*

Morus alba, White Mulberry (species of concern)

Morus rubra, Red Mulberry

Nyssaceae

Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo

Oleaceae

Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia*

Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard

Forsythia sp., Forsythia*

Fraxinus americana, White Ash 

Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)

Ligustrum sinense, Privet* Invasive

Syringa sp., Lilac*

Pinaceae

Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce*

Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine

Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)

Tsuga canadensis, Weeping Hemlock ‘Pendulum”*

Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)

Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore

Rosaceae

Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry

Aronia sp., Chokeberry

Crataegus spp., Hawthorn

Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas*

Malus sp., Apple*

Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark

Prunus armeniaca, Apricot* 

Prunus avium, Bird Cherry

Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry

Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)

Prunus sp., Cherry*

Prunus sp., Native Plum

Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry

Pyrus communis, Pear*

Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose* Invasive

Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*

Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose

Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals*

Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry 

Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry*

Rubus sp., Blackberry*

Rubus sp., Raspberry*

 Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash

Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea*

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia*

Rutacee

Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree

Poncirus trifoliata, Flying Dragon or Trifoliate Orange*

Salicaceae

Salix babylonia, Weeping Willow

Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow*

Salix discolor, Pussy Willow

Salix sp., Willow

Sapindaceae

Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium

Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder 

Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple

Acer rubrum, Red Maple

Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple

Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple

Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye

Koelreuteria paniculata, Goldenrain Tree*

Simaroubaceae 

Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven* Invasive

Styracaceae

Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell

Styrax americanus, American Snowbell

Taxaceae

Taxus sp., Yew*

Theaceae

Cammelia sinensis, Tea* 

Stewartia sp., Stewartia (species of concern)

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne odora, Daphne

Dirca palustris, Leatherwood

Ulmaceae

Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm

Plants:

Acanthaceae

Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia

Acoraceae

Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus

Agavaceae

Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily

Hosta spp., Hosta*

Yucca filamentosa, Yucca*

          

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus spp.

Amaryllidaceae 

Allium spp., Ornamentals*

Allium tricoccum, Ramps

Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion*

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil

Anacardiaceae

Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy

Apiaceae 

Angelica archangelica, Angelica*

Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort

Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace

Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master

Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico

Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely*

Osmorhiza claytoni, Sweet Cicely

Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip

Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot 

Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander 

Apocynaceae 

Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star

Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane

Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed*

Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed

Asclepias verticulata, Whorled Milkweed

Vinca Minor, Vinca or Periwinkle 

Araceae 

Amorphophallus sp., Voodoo Lily*

Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon

Arisaema triphyllum,  Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip 

Araliaceae 

Aralia racemosa, Spikenard

Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick

Hedera helix, English Ivy*

Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng*

Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng   

Aristolochiaceae

Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine

Asarum canadense,  Wild Ginger

Asparagaceae

Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca

Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume

Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon’s Seal

Asphodelaceae

Asphoedelus albus, Asphodel*

Asteraceae

Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow 

Achillea millifolium, Yarrow

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *(Invasive)

Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory*

Antennaria spp., Rosy Pussy-Toes

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain

Artemisia annual, Sweet Annie*

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*

Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood*

Arctium minus, Common Burdock*

Aster pilosus, White Heath Aster

Bidens frondosa,  Beggar’s Ticks 

Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button*

Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua*

Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold

Cichorium intybus, Chicory

Cirsium discolor,  Field thistle*

Cirsium sp., Thistle

Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist Flower or Hardy Ageratum

Coreopsis major,  Whorled Coreopsis

Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals*

Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia*

Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea

Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower

Echinacea pursuer, Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower

Elephantopus tomentosa/corolinianus, Elephant’s Foot

Erechtites heirachifolia, Pilewort

Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane

Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset

Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset

Eurybia divaricata, Common White Heart-leaved Aster or Wood Aster

Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed

Galinsoga ciliata,  Galinsoga or Quickweed 

Helianthus augustifolia, Swamp Sunflower

Helianthus maximilianii,  Maximillian Sunflower

Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosa, Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower

Hieracium venous, Rattlesnake weed

Inula helenium, Elecampane

Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce

Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eyed Daisy*

Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather

Lonactis linarifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster

Nablus latissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth

Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort

Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine

Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium,  Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida pinnata, Prairie Coneflower or Gray-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata,  Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower 

Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton

Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant

Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot 

Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle

Solidago canadensis,  Canada Goldenrod

Solidago sp. Goldenrods

Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod

 Sonchus oleraceus,  Common Sow Thistle*  

 Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster*

Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster

 Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew

 Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy 

 Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion*

 Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem

 Vernonia altissima, Ironweed

 Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed 

Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed

Berberidaceae

Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh

Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf

Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple  

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine

Boraginaceae  

Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge

Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf

Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells

Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not*

Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia 

Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort

Symphytum officinale, Comfrey 

Brassicaceae

Alliaria petiolata,  Garlic Mustard*

Amoracia rusticana, Horseradish

Barbarea verna or vulgaris, Cress

Brassica rapa, Field Mustard*

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse

Cardamine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress

Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft

Lepedium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper

Lunaria annua, Money Plant*

Buxaceae

Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge

Cactaceae

Cylindropunita imbricata, Tree Cholla*

Cylindropunita x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla*

Echincereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus*

Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear

Campanulaceae 

Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower

Campanula divericata, Southern Harebell

Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower

Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco

Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia spp., Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle*  Invasive

Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle

Centranthus ruber, Jupiter’s Beard or Red Valerian

Diervilla sessifolia, Bush Honeysuckle

Dipsacus fullonum, Teasle

Patrinia scabiosifolia, Golden Valerian*

Valeriana jamansii, Indian Valerian*

Valeriana officinalis, Valerian*

Weigelia sp.*

Caryophyllaceae

Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed

Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink

Dianthus spp., Sweet William*

Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort

Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly

Silene virginica, Fire Pink

Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears*

Stellaria media, Common Chickweed

Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed

 

Celastraceae

Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet* Invasive

Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper* Invasive

Chenopodiaceae 

Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot* 

Cleomaceae

Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower or Pink Queen* Invasive

Colchicaceae 

Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort 

Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Commelinaceae 

Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower*

Tradescantia, Spiderwort

Convolvulaceae 

Calystegia spp., Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory

Cuscuta sp., Dodder

Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory* 

Ipomoea purpurea,  Common Morning Glory

Crassulaceae 

Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare

Sedum telephioides, Live Forever

Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop 

Cucurbitaceae

Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)

Cyperaceae 

Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge 

Carex spp., Sedges

Diapensiaceae 

Galax urceolata, Galax

Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells

Dioscoraceae 

Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamon-vine, Air Potato*   

Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam

Droseraceae

Dionaea sp., Pink flowering Sundew

Ephedraceae

Ephedra sp., Mahuang

Equisetaceae

Equesitum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush

Ericaceae

Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa

Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen

Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble

Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap

Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe

Pieris japonica, Japanese Andromeda*

Euphorbiaceae 

Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury

Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge

Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge

Ricinus communis, Castor Bean*  

Fabaceae

Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut

Apios americana, Groundnut

Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus*

Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo

Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo

Cassia hebecarpa, Wild Senna

Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca*

Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil

Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom

Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea

Lupinus spp., Lupines*

Securigera varia, Crown Vetch*

Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner

Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover

Trifolium pratense, Red Clover

Trifolium repens, White Clover

Vicia sp., Vetch

Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria

Gentianaceae 

Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s Gentian or Bottle Gentian

Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian*

Obolaria virginica,  Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian

Sabatia angularis, Rose Gentian or Rose Pink  

Geraniaceae 

Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium

Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium

Hyacinthaceae

Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth

Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem

Hypericaceae

Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort*

Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort 

Iridaceae 

Crocosmia sp.,  Lucifer’s Tongue

Iris cristata,  Dwarf Crested Iris 

Iris fulva, Copper Iris

Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag*

Iris spp., multiple varieties all over property*

Juncaceae 

Juncus effusus, Soft Rush (by lower pond) 

Juncus tenuis, Path Rush 

Lamiaceae

Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop*

Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint

Collinsonia canadensis,  Richweed or Horsebalm or Stoneroot 

Glechoma hederacea,  Ground Ivy or Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground  

Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit

Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle*

Lavandula spp., Lavender* (Munstead, Elegance Purle, Czech

Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort*

Leonurus japonicus, Chinese Motherwort*

Leonurua sibericus, Siberian Motherwort* Invasive 

Lycopus europaeus, European Bugleweed or Gypsywort*

Lycopus virginicus, Bugleweed

Melissa officianlis, Lemon Balm

Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint*

Mentha piperita, Peppermint

Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive

Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea*

Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot

Nepeta cataria, Catnip*

Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil*

Origanum vulgare, Oregano*

Perilla frutescans, Shiso*

Perovskia atriplicifolia, Russian Sage*

Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant  

Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal

Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint

Rosmarinus spp., Rosemary*

Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage

Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage*

Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage*

Salvia spp., Ornamental Sages*

Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap*

Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap

Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii, Shale Barren Skullcap

Thymus spp., Thyme*    

Liliaceae 

Chamelirium luteum, False Unicorn Root

Erythronium sp., Trout Lily

Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily

Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily

Liriope muscari, Liriope*

Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber

Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing* 

Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells

Uvularia sessifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Uvularia sp., Bellwort

 

Loganiaceae

Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink

Malvaceae

Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus spp., Ornamental and Native varieties

Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour

Malva neglecta,  Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow

Sida sp., Sida

Melanthiaceae 

Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily 

Montiaceae

Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty

Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius).  Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower.  This species, though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops in our area. One specimen found at Onion Rock.   

Myricaceae

Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern

Onagraceae

Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade 

Gaura biennis, Beeblossom

Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox

Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose

Onethera fremontii, Shimmer*

Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops

Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies

Orchidaceae

Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot   

Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers

Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid  

Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid   

Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid

Orobanchaceae 

Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech

Conopholis americana, Bear Corn 

Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops

Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape 

Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort 

Oxalidaceae 

Oxalis spp., Wood Sorrel

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia sp., Peony*

Papaveraceae  

Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn

 Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchmans Breeches

Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts

Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy*

Macleaya cordata, Plume Poppy*

Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy*

Papavar sominferum, Opium Poppy*

Papavar orientale, Oriental Poppy*

Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot

Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine 

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower

Phrymaceae 

Mimulus sp., Monkey Flower

Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed  

Phytolaccaceae 

Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed

Plantaginaceae

Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove

Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead

Chelone spp., Turtlehead

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove*

Penstemon spp., Beardtongue

Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue

Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue 

Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain

Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain

Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain

Veronica americana, American Brookline

Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not

Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue*

Veronica persica, Birds Eye Speedwell

Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica*

Veronicatrum virginicum, Culver’s Root

Plumbaginaceae

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago

Poaceae

Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass

Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane

Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass

Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass

Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass*

Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass*

Microstegium vimineum,  Japanese Stilt Grass*

Miscanthus sinensis,  Chinese Silver Grass*  Invasive

Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass

Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*

Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem

Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass* Invasive

Polemoniaceae

Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox

Phlox spp., Phlox

Phlox stolinifera, Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox*

Polemonium reptans, Jacob’s Ladder

Polygonaceae

Brunnichia ?

Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu*

Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat

Polygonum or Persicaria spp., Knotweed, Smartweed, Lady’s Thumb

Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel

Rumex crispus, Curly Dock

Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock

Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock

Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed

Portulacaceae 

Portulaca oleracea, Purslane

Primulaceae

Dodecatheon media, Shooting Star

Lysimachia japonica, Dwarf Creeping Jenny Minutissima variety*

Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip

Primula meadia, Shooting Star

Ranunculaceae

Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes

Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower

Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed

Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine

Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower

Clematis spp., Ornamental

Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur

Hepatica acutiloba,  Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf

Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal

Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot 

Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup*

Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue

Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot

Rosaceae

Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony

Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony 

Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle*

Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard

Duchesnea indica, Indian Strawberry*

Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie

Fragaria sp., Strawberry*

Geum sp., Avens

Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil

Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil 

Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet*

Spirea japonica, Japanese Spirea* Invasive

Rubiaceae

Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed

Galium aparine, Cleavers*

Galium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice or Lance-leaved Gallium

Galium odorata, Sweet Woodruff*

Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia    

Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Squaw Vine(name is of Algonquian origin) Species of concern

Rubia tinctoria, Madder*

Rutaceae

Ruta graveolens, Rue*

Saururaceae

Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa*

Houtonia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*

Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail

Saxifragaceae 

Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard

Astilbe sp., Ornamental*

Heuchera americana, American Alumroot

Heuchera spp., Coral Bells

Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce

Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap

Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower

Scrophulariaceae 

Scrophularia ningpoensis, Xuan Shen*

Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort*

Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein 

Smilacaceae 

Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla

Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower

Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar  

Solanaceae 

Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet*

Datura sp.

Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed

Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru

Nicotiana sp., Tobacco*

Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade

Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle

 

Trilliaceae 

Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade

Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium

Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie

Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium

Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium    

Typhaceae

Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail*(Invasive)

Urticaceae 

Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle

Pilea pumila, Clearweed 

Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*

 

Verbenaceae

Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain

Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain*

Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain 

Violaceae

Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet

Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet

Viola padata, Birdfoot Violet  

Viola pallens, Northern White Violet 

Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet

Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet

Viola sororia var. sororia, Common Blue or Confederate Violet

Vitaceae 

Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper

Vitis sp., Fox Grape 

Vitis sp., Scuppernong

Vitis sp., Grape* 

Suspected species:  

Bladder Campion, Coral-root Orchid, Mountain Pepper Bush, Straggling St Johns Wort, Table Mountain Pine, Vermilion Pimpernel and Whorled Loosestrife 

Ferns:

Aspleniaceae 

Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort 

Athyriaceae

Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern*

Dryopteridaceae 

Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern

Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)

Huperzia lucidula, Shinning Clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)

Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss

Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar

Onocleaceae

Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern

Ophioglossaceae

Botrypus virginianus,  Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer

Osmundaceae

Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern

Sinopteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern

Woodsiaceae

Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern

Onoclea sensibilis, Senstive Fern

Polypodiaceae 

Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection fern

Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypod 

Thelypteridaceae 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern  

Mosses and lichens:

Atrichium sp.

Bryoandersonia sp. 

Fissidens sp.  

Thuidium sp.

Ulota crispa

Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype

Usnea

Fungi: 

Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus 

Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap 

Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom

Morchella esculenta, Morel

Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore

Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom 

Russula sp., Russula 

Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus

Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum

Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail 

Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral

Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore

Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers

also: lobster, old man of the woods, shitake, honey, puffball, chicken of the woods, bolete, beefstake, birdsnest, chantrell, jack-o-lantern, cordyceps

Slimemolds: 

Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold

Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime 

Birds: (Seen or heard on the Property)

Crow, American Goldfinch, Robin, Barn Swallow, Black Billed Cuckoo, Black and White Warbler, Blue Bird, Blue Jay, Carolina Chickadee, Carolina Wren, Cedar Waxwing, Cooper’s Hawk, Dark-eyed Junco, Eastern Phoebe, Eastern Towhee, Evening Grosbeak, Flycather, Gray Catbird, Grouse, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Hooded Warbler, Indigo Bunting, Mourning Dove, Cardinal, Northern Harrier, Northern Mockingbird, Oven Bird, Barn Owl, Barred Owl, Screech Owl, Painted Bunting, Pheasant, Red-Eyed Vireo, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird, Scarlet Tanager, Song Sparrow and other Sparrows, Tree Creeper, Tufted Titmouse, Turkey Vulture, Wild Turkey, Winter Wren, Woodpeckers: Downy, Hairy, Red-bellied, Pileated and Northern Flicker

Significant Invertebrate: 

Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!

Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders.  Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs.  Found on boulder near waterfall.

Mantis religiosa, European mantis

Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle

Ground Wasps. Beware!