Herb Mountain Farm | Weaverville, NC

Hello everyone! Thank you so so much for visiting our website and checking out what we are up to here at Herb Mountain Farm!

In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Leaning Deer, helped us compile a species list of the flora we have met on the property. Over the past few years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing plants to help broaden it! (And helping plant and tend them, too!)

It begins with a description of our farm, and then a list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all perennials here, as well as some animal life! Enjoy! This list is continually being updated, a true living document!

Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm 

Weaverville, North Carolina  

begun 2014, last updated -2020

Compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Plantwalker

This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, primarily consists of West facing slopes but also includes some South,  Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East. 

The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens and residential, retreat and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species.  There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch.  The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.

With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.

Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of non-native or cultivated status will have an * following their names and “Invasive” if they are particularly so.  Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with “sp.” following the generic name. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage. Only perennial or self-seeding annuals are listed. Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added in time. 

Trees and Shrubs: 


Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry

Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum

Viburnum dentata, Arrowwood

Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw

Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry or Crampbark

Viburnum X pragense, Prague Viburnum


Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac 

Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac


Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw


Ilex crenata, Japanese Holly*

Ilex decidua, Winter Holly

Ilex meservaea, Blue Maid HolliesIlex opaca, American Holly


Berberis thunbergii, Barberry Bagatelle*

Mahonia aquifolium, Oregon Grape Bush*

Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo*


Alnus sp., Alder

Betula lenta, Sweet Birch

Betula nigra, River Birch

Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood

Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut

Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam


Buxus semervirens, Boxwood*

Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox*


Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweetbubbas or Carolina Allspice


Celtis sp. Hackberry


Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or American Wahoo


Clethracea alniflora, Pepperbush


Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood

Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood

Cornus canadensis, BunchBerry

Cornus florida,  Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)

Cornus kousa*

Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry

Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood, Red Gnome variety 


Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress*

Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper*

Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast*

Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike*

Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Red Cedar

Thuja spp., ArborVitae*


Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon

Diospyros spp., Oriental Persimmons* 


Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel

Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood

Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela 

Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea

Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel

Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela

Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela

Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron 

Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium spp., Blueberries*


Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa

Caragana arborescens, Siberian Pea Shrub*

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud

Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffee Bean

Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)


Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut*

Fagus grandifolia, American Beech

Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)

Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak

Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak

Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak

Quercus velutina, Black Oak


Ginko biloba, Gingko*


Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry


Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder

Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel


Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea

Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea

Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties

Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange


Illicium floridanum, Star Anise Tree*


Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire 


Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory

Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory

Carya illinoinensis, Pecan

Juglans nigra, Black Walnut


Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower*

Vitex spp.


Lindera benzoin, Spicebush

Sassafras albidum, Sassafras


Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII*


Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree

Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia

Magnolia fraseri, Fraser Magnolia, Mountain Magnolia or Wahoo

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia*

Magnolia macrophylla, Umbrella Magnolia

Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia*

Magnolia stellata, Star Magnolia*


Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon*

Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange

Tilia heterophylla, Appalachian Basswood or Linden

Tilia sp., European cultivar*


Ficus carna, Dessert King*

Morus alba, White Mulberry (species of concern)

Morus rubra, Red Mulberry


Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo


Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia*

Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard

Forsythia sp., Forsythia*

Fraxinus americana, White Ash 

Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)

Ligustrum sinense, Privet* Invasive

Syringa sp., Lilac*


Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce*

Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine

Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine

Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)

Tsuga canadensis, Weeping Hemlock ‘Pendulum”*

Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)


Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore


Frangula alnus, “Asplenifolia”*

Ziziphus mauritiana, Jujube Date


Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry

Aronia sp., Chokeberry

Crataegus spp., Hawthorn

Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas*

Malus sp., Apple*

Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark

Prunus armeniaca, Apricot* 

Prunus avium, Bird Cherry

Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry

Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)

Prunus sp., Cherry*

Prunus sp., Native Plum

Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry

Pyrus communis, Pear*

Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose* Invasive

Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*

Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose

Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals*

Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry 

Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry*

Rubus sp., Blackberry*

Rubus sp., Raspberry*

 Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash

Spirea japonica 

Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea*


Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia*


Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree

Poncirus trifoliata, Flying Dragon or Trifoliate Orange*


Salix babylonia, Weeping Willow

Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow*

Salix discolor, Pussy Willow

Salix sp., Willow


Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium

Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder 

Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple

Acer rubrum, Red Maple

Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple

Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple

Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye

Koelreuteria paniculata, Goldenrain Tree*


Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven* Invasive


Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell

Styrax americanus, American Snowbell


Taxus sp., Yew*


Cammelia sinensis, Tea* 

Stewartia sp., Stewartia (species of concern)


Daphne odora, Daphne

Dirca palustris, Leatherwood


Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm



Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia


Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus


Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily

Hosta spp., Hosta*

Yucca filamentosa, Yucca*


Amaranthus spinosa, Spiny Amaranth* 

Amaranthus spp.

Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot* 


Allium spp., Ornamentals*

Allium tricoccum, Ramps

Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion*

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil


Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy


Angelica archangelica, Angelica*

Angelica gigas, Angelica

Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort

Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace

Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master

Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico

Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely*

Osmorhiza claytonii, Sweet Cicely

Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip

Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot 

Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander 


Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star

Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane

Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed*

Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed

Ascelpias veridiflora, Green Milkweed

Asclepias verticillata, Whorled Milkweed

Gomphocarpus physocarpus, Balloon Milkweed*

Vinca minor, Vinca or Periwinkle 


Amorphophallus sp., Voodoo Lily*

Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon

Arisaema triphyllum,  Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip 


Aralia racemosa, Spikenard

Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick

Hedera helix, English Ivy*

Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng*

Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng 

Tetrapanax papyrifer, Rice Paper Plant*  


Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine

Asarum canadense,  Wild Ginger


Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca

Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume

Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon’s Seal

Asphodelaceae  (Xanthorrboeaceae)

Asphodelus albus, Asphodel*


Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow 

Achillea millifolium, Yarrow

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *(Invasive)

Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory*

Antennaria spp., Rosy Pussy-Toes

Arctium minus, Common Burdock*

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain

Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood*

Artemisia annua, Sweet Annie*

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*

Bidens frondosa,  Beggar’s Ticks 

Bigelowia nuttallii, Nutalls Rayless Goldenrod

Boltonia asteroids, Wavy Aster

Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button*

Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua*

Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold

Chrysopsis mariana, Golden Aster

Cichorium intybus, Chicory

Cirsium discolor,  Field thistle*

Cirsium sp., Thistle

Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist Flower or Hardy Ageratum

Coreopsis major,  Whorled Coreopsis

Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals*

Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia*

Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea

Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower

Elephantopus tomentosa/carolinianus, Elephant’s Foot

Erechtites heiraciifolius, Pilewort

Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane

Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset

Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset

Eurybia divaricata, Common White Heart-leaved Aster or Wood Aster

Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed

Galinsoga ciliata,  Galinsoga or Quickweed

Grindelia robusta, Gumweed 

Helianthus angustifolius, Swamp Sunflower

Helianthus maximilianii,  Maximillian Sunflower

Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower

Hieracium venosum, Rattlesnake weed

Inula helenium, Elecampane

Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster

Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce

Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eyed Daisy*

Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather

Nablus latissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth

Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort

Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine

Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium,  Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida pinnata, Prairie Coneflower or Gray-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata,  Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower 

Rudbeckia fulgide, Orange Coneflower

Rudbeckia maxima

Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton

Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant

Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot 

Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle

Solidago canadensis,  Canada Goldenrod

Solidago sp. Goldenrods

Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod

 Sonchus oleraceus,  Common Sow Thistle*  

 Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster*

Symhpyotrichum ericoides

Symphyotrichum pilosum, White Heath Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster

 Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew

 Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy 

 Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion*

 Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem

 Vernonia altissima, Ironweed

 Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr


Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed 

Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed


Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh

Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf

Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple  


Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine


Anchusa ochroleuca, Yellow Alkanet

Anchusa officinalis, Anchusa Azure

Borago officinalis, Borage

Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge

Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf

Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells

Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not*

Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia 

Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort

Symphytum officinale, Comfrey 


Amoracia rusticana, Horseradish*

Barbarea verna or vulgaris, Cress

Brassica rapa, Field Mustard*

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse

Cardamine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress

Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft*

Lepidium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper

Lunaria annua, Money Plant*


Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge


Cylindropuntia imbricata, Tree Cholla*

Cylindropuntia x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla*

Echinocereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus*

Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear


Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower

Campanula divericata, Southern Harebell

Laurentia (or Isotoma) fluviatilis, Blue Star Creeper 

Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower

Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco

Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia spp., Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass


Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle*  Invasive

Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle

Centranthus ruber, Jupiter’s Beard or Red Valerian

Diervilla sessifolia, Bush Honeysuckle

Dipsacus fullonum, Teasle

Patrinia scabiosifolia, Golden Valerian*

Valeriana jamansii, Indian Valerian*

Valeriana officinalis, Valerian*

Weigelia sp.*


Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed

Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink

Dianthus deltoids, Maiden Pink*

Dianthus spp., Sweet William and Super Trouper etc…*

Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort

Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly

Silene virginica, Fire Pink

Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears*

Stellaria media, Common Chickweed

Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed


Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet* Invasive

Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper* Invasive


Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower or Pink Queen* Invasive


Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort 

Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort


Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower*

Tradescantia, Spiderwort


Calystegia spp., Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory

Cuscuta sp., Dodder

Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory* 

Ipomoea purpurea,  Common Morning Glory


Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare

Sedum telephioides, Live Forever

Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop 


Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)


Carex flaca, Blue Zinger Sedge

Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge 

Carex spp., Sedges


Galax urceolata, Galax

Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells


Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamon-vine, Air Potato* Invasive  

Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam


Ephedra sp., Mahuang or Mormon Tea


Equesitum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush


Calluna vulgaris, Heather

Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa

Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen

Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble

Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap

Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe

Pieris japonica, Japanese Andromeda*


Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury

Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge

Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge

Euphorbia maculata, Prostrate Spurge

Ricinus communis, Castor Bean*  


Amorpha fruitcosa, Desert False Indigo

Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut

Apios americana, Groundnut

Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus*

Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo

Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo

Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca*

Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil

Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom

Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea

Lupinus spp., Lupines*

Securigera varia, Crown Vetch*

Senna hebecarpa, Northern Wild Senna (Ceasalpinia family actually)

Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner

Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover

Trifolium pratense, Red Clover

Trifolium repens, White Clover

Vicia sp., Vetch

Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria


Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s Gentian or Bottle Gentian

Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian*

Obolaria virginica,  Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian

Sabatia angularis, Rose Gentian or Rose Pink  


Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium

Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium


Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth

Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem


Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort*

Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort 


Crocosmia sp.,  Lucifer’s Tongue

Iris cristata,  Dwarf Crested Iris 

Iris fulva, Copper Iris

Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag*

Iris spp., multiple varieties all over property*


Juncus effusus, Soft Rush (by lower pond) 

Juncus tenuis, Path Rush 


Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop*

Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint

Collinsonia canadensis,  Richweed or Horsebalm or Stoneroot 

Glechoma hederacea,  Ground Ivy or Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground 

Lamiastrum galeobdoblon, Herman’s Pride Archangel* 

Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit

Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle*

Lavandula spp., Lavender* (Munstead, Elegance Purle, Czech

Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort*

Leonurus japonicus, Chinese Motherwort*

Leonurua sibiricus, Siberian Motherwort* Invasive 

Lycopus europaeus, European Bugleweed or Gypsywort*

Lycopus virginicus, Bugleweed

Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm

Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint*

Mentha piperita, Peppermint

Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive

Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea*

Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot

Monarda punctatum, Spotted Bee Balm

Nepeta cataria, Catnip*

Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil*

Origanum vulgare, Oregano*

Perilla frutescens, Shiso*

Perovskia atriplicifolia, Russian Sage*

Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant  

Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal

Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint

Rosmarinus spp., Rosemary*

Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage

Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage*

Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red Sage/Denshen

Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage*

Salvia spp., Ornamental Sages*

Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap*

Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap

Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet or Rough Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap

Scutellaria parvula var. leonardii, Shale Barren Skullcap

Thymus spp., Thyme varieties*    


Chamelirium luteum, False Unicorn Root

Erythronium sp., Trout Lily

Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily

Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily

Liriope muscari, Liriope*

Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber

Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing* 

Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells

Scilla siberica, Siberian Squill

Uvularia sessifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Uvularia sp., Bellwort



Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink


Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus moscheatus, Rose Mallow

Hibiscus sabdireffa, Roselle

Hibiscus spp., Ornamental and Native varieties

Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour

Malva neglecta,  Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow

Sida sp., Sida


Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily 


Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty

Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius).  Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower.  This species, though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops in our area. One specimen found at Onion Rock.   


Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern


Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade 

Gaura biennis, Beeblossom

Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox

Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose

Onethera fremontii, Shimmer*

Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops

Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies


Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot   

Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers

Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid

Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid    

Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid


Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech

Conopholis americana, Bear Corn 

Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops

Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape 

Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort 


Oxalis spp., Wood Sorrel


Paeonia sp., Peony*


Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn

Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Breeches

Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts

Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy*

Macleaya cordata, Plume Poppy*

Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy*

Papavar somniferum, Opium Poppy*

Papavar orientale, Oriental Poppy*

Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot

Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine 


Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower


Mimulus sp., Monkey Flower

Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed  


Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed


Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove

Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead

Chelone spp., Turtlehead

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove*

Penstemon spp., Beardtongue

Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis, Foxglove Penstemon 

Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue 

Penstemon smallii

Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain

Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain

Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain

Veronica americana, American Brookline

Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not

Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue*

Veronica persica, Birds Eye Speedwell

Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica*

Veronicatrum virginicum, Culver’s Root


Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago


Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass

Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane

Arundo donax, Peppermint Stick or Striped Giant Reed

Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass

Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass

Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass*

Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass*

Microstegium vimineum,  Japanese Stilt Grass*

Miscanthus sinensis,  Chinese Silver Grass*  Invasive

Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass

Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*

Poa annua, Bluegrass

Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem

Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass* Invasive


Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox

Phlox spp., Phlox

Phlox stolonifera, Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox*

Polemonium reptans, Jacob’s Ladder


Brunnichia ?

Eriogonum allenii, Yellow Buckwheat

Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu*

Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat

Polygonum or Persicaria spp., Knotweed, Smartweed, Lady’s Thumb

Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel

Rumex crispus, Curly Dock

Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock

Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock

Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed


Portulaca oleracea, Purslane


Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel*

Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife* 

Lysimachia japonica, Dwarf Creeping Jenny var. minutissima*

Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip

Primula meadia, Shooting Star


Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes

Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower

Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed

Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine

Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower

Clematis spp., Ornamental

Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur

Helliborus orientalis, Lenten Rose

Hepatica acutiloba,  Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf

Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal

Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot 

Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup*

Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue

Trautvetterria carolinensis, Carolina Tassel Rue

Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot


Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony

Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony 

Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle*

Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard

Duchesnea indica, Indian Strawberry*

Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie

Fragaria sp., Strawberry*

Geum sp., Avens

Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil

Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil 

Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet*

Spirea japonica, Japanese Spirea* Invasive


Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed

Gallium aparine, Cleavers*

Gallium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice or Lance-leaved Gallium

Gallium odorata, Sweet Woodruff*

Gallium rubrum, Madder

Gallium sherardia, Field Madder

Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia    

Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Squaw Vine(name is of Algonquian origin) Species of concern

Rubia tinctoria, Madder*


Ruta graveolens, Rue*


Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa*

Houtonyia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*

Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail


Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard

Astilbe sp., Ornamental*

Heuchera americana, American Alumroot

Heuchera spp., Coral Bells

Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce

Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap

Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower


Schisandra glabra, Magnolia Vine


Scrophularia ningpoensis, Xuan Shen*

Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort*

Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein 


Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla

Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower

Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar  


Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet*

Datura sp.

Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed

Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru

Nicotiana sp., Tobacco*

Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade

Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle



Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade

Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium

Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie

Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium

Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium    


Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail*(Invasive)


Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle

Pilea pumila, Clearweed 

Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*



Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain

Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain*

Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain 


Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet

Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet

Viola padata, Birdfoot Violet  

Viola pallens, Northern White Violet 

Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet

Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet

Viola sororia var. sororia, Common Blue or Confederate Violet


Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper

Vitis sp., Fox Grape 

Vitis sp., Scuppernong

Vitis sp., Grape* 

Suspected species:  

Bladder Campion, Coral-root Orchid, Mountain Pepper Bush, Straggling St Johns Wort, Table Mountain Pine, Vermilion Pimpernel and Whorled Loosestrife 



Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort 


Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern*


Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern

Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)

Huperzia lucidula, Shining Clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)

Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss

Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar


Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern


Botrypus virginianus,  Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer


Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern


Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern


Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern

Onoclea sensibilis, Senstive Fern


Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection fern

Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypod 


Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern  

Mosses and lichens:

Atrichium sp.

Bryoandersonia sp. 

Fissidens sp. 

Polytrichum commune 

Thuidium sp.

Ulota crispa

Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype



Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus 

Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap 

Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom

Morchella esculenta, Morel

Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore

Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom 

Russula sp., Russula 

Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus

Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum

Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail 

Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral

Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore

Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers

also: lobster, old man of the woods, shitake, honey, puffball, chicken of the woods, bolete, beefstake, birdsnest, chantrell, jack-o-lantern, cordyceps


Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold

Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime 

Birds: (Seen or heard on the Property)

Crow, American Goldfinch, Robin, Barn Swallow, Black Billed Cuckoo, Black and White Warbler, Blue Bird, Blue Jay, Carolina Chickadee, Carolina Wren, Cedar Waxwing, Cooper’s Hawk, Dark-eyed Junco, Eastern Phoebe, Eastern Towhee, Evening Grosbeak, Flycather, Gray Catbird, Grouse, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Hooded Warbler, Indigo Bunting, Mourning Dove, Cardinal, Northern Harrier, Northern Mockingbird, Oven Bird, Barn Owl, Barred Owl, Screech Owl, Painted Bunting, Pheasant, Red-Eyed Vireo, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird, Scarlet Tanager, Song Sparrow and other Sparrows, Tree Creeper, Tufted Titmouse, Turkey Vulture, Wild Turkey, Winter Wren, Woodpeckers: Downy, Hairy, Red-bellied, Pileated and Northern Flicker

Significant Invertebrate: 

Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!

Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders.  Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs.  Found on boulder near waterfall. 


Mantis religiosa, European mantis

Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle

Ground Wasps